UGL Unicco First To Embrace Ionator EXP Ionized Water Cleaner That Kills H1N1 Virus

UGL Unicco, a subsidiary of UGL Limited, announced that it is deploying Activeion Cleaning Solutions’ breakthrough Ionator EXP to its workforce. The new cleaning and sanitizing device supports the recently announced UGL Unicco Flu Preparedness and Business Continuity Plan. UGL Unicco was an R&D testing partner of Ionator EXP units during the development process.

UGL Unicco provides cleaning and other facilities services to commercial and industrial companies, as well as schools, colleges and universities, government facilities and public venues. It has long practiced green cleaning techniques and has developed its H1N1 response plan to help customers minimize their employees’, occupants’ and visitors’ exposure to the virus. The Ionator EXP initial deployment will target facilities that are addressing local H1N1 issues.

“We’re pleased to be out front on deploying the latest in cleaning technology to our customers’ sites,” commented UGL Unicco Vice President of Marketing George Lohnes. “Using Ionator EXP is an extremely safe and effective way to neutralize the H1N1 virus.

“Beyond the fact that it kills the H1N1 virus in seconds, the ionized water is absolutely safe for our workers and for building occupants; it doesn’t use any toxic chemicals; it’s completely non-allergenic; heavy liquids don’t have to be transported; and plastic containers don’t have to be discarded. It addresses two of our top priorities – cleanliness and sustainability.”

H1N1 Neutralization

The Ionator EXP is a specialized handheld cleaner and sanitizer that uses an ionizing technology to convert tap water into a powerful, non-toxic, dirt-removing and bacteria-killing cleaner. According to Activeion , independent tests have shown that Ionator EXP kills the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A virus in six seconds. Chemical-based sanitizers must remain on the surface (dwell time) for up to ten minutes to eliminate the H1N1 virus.

UGL Unicco

Philips Launches Interventional Configuration To Assist In Stroke Assessment

Royal Philips Electronics (NYSE: PHG, AEX: PHI) introduced Philips VasoCT, an intra-vascular interventional configuration for the Philips Allura Xper interventional X-ray system designed to visualize vessel structure beyond a clot and help physicians identify and assess the size and extent of an ischemic stroke. This ensures angiography suite treatment as quickly as possible, thus helping to improve outcomes and quality of life for the patient. VasoCT is based on a 3D rotational scan and a special injection protocol.

Stroke affects 15 million people worldwide each year, with five million people dying from strokes annually . It is the third leading cause of death in the U.S. and the number one reason for adult disability. Thirty percent of those who have had a stroke need assistance walking, 26 percent become nursing home residents, and 19 percent have trouble speaking.

“Time is most essential when a stroke occurs.” said Bert van Meurs, senior vice president of Interventional X-ray for Philips Healthcare.” VasoCT allows physicians a clear view on the location and size of the occlusion and surrounding cerebral blood vessels, which leads to assessment and implementation of treatment. VasoCT also visually aids physicians in navigating through the clot in the right direction.

Receiving quick medical attention significantly lowers the risk of disability and death. Through a rotational scan in the interventional neuro radiology suite, VasoCT reveals key information about cerebral vascular structures in detail. It is one of the most comprehensive interventional imaging configurations in the Philips interventional X-ray suite, displaying the nuances and complexities beyond the actual occlusion and allowing for navigation in real time.

Professor Jacques Moret, M.D., a leading global authority on neuro interventional techniques said, “A stroke is a life-threatening condition that can get worse quickly unless the right diagnosis and treatment decisions are made in time. VasoCT provides physicians with the information needed to make important decisions at a crucial moment for the stroke patient.”

VasoCT will be available in the near future as an interventional configuration to the Philips Allura Xper interventional neuro radiology suite.

1. World Health Organization, The Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke
2. Center for Disease Control,”Stroke Facts”
3. American Heart Foundation, Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2007 Update

Royal Philips Electronics

Radical Prostatectomy For Octogenarians: How Old Is Too Old?

UroToday- There is no defined recommendation for when to stop prostate cancer (CaP) screening, except when the life expectancy decreases to less than 10 years. In the United States, it is relatively uncommon for a man to undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) as definitive therapy beyond the age of 75 years. Yet life expectancy for a man in his upper 70s is about 10 years. Some men older than age 80 are fit and demand definitive therapy in the form of RP. Dr. Thompson and colleagues at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN identified a group of 19 men over age 80 who underwent RP and report on their outcomes in the November issue of Urology.

From 1986 to 2003, 13,154 men were treated with RP at the Mayo Clinic. Of these, 19 (0.4%) were 80 years or older at surgery. Overall, their database revealed that 876 men were diagnosed with localized CaP during this time period. The clinical, pathological, oncologic and functional outcomes were retrospectively assessed.

Mean patient age was 81 years, median pre-operative PSA was 10.2ng/ml, all men had clinical T1-2 disease and no patient had known metastasis. The mean American Society of Anesthesiologists score was 2.4. Records indicated that 5 patients specifically demanded RP and were opposed to age discrimination and in addition, 5 patients were physicians. On pathology, 13 (68%) had organ-confined disease, 2 had pT3a, 4 had pT3b, and 3 had a positive surgical margin. Gleason score was 7 or greater in 11 men (58%) and all had a negative pelvic lymphadenectomy.

While no peri-operative complications occurred and 3 received a blood transfusion, but these men all had surgery prior to 1992. Median follow-up was 10.5 years and no patient died within the first year after RP. Three men died less than 10 years after RP and no patient died from CaP. Ten patients survived more than 10 years, with 7 alive at a mean follow-up of 12.8 years. No overall survival difference was found comparing the survival of these patients (79%) with patients 60-69 years old (84%) and 70-79 years olds (75%) from the Mayo database during the same time period. Four men experienced a biochemical recurrence of PSA level 0.4ng/ml or greater. One patient with a positive surgical margin received adjuvant radiotherapy.

Regarding functional outcomes, one year after RP, 14 patients (74%) were using less than 1 pad/day for incontinence, 2 used 1 pad/day, 2 needed 2 pads/day or more and 1 required an artificial urinary sphincter. Nerve sparing was not performed in these men.

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of RP in octogenarians. While their data supports that RP can be performed safely in these men with good outcomes, it does not answer the question whether it is necessary. Other non-definitive modalities such as active surveillance and delayed androgen deprivation might give comparable results but were not compared in this study.

ThompsonВ RH, SlezakВ JM, WebsterВ WS, LieberВ MM
Urology 2006; 685(5):1042-45

Reviewed by UroToday Contributing Editor Christopher P. Evans, MD

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PSA Test Better Predicts Cancer In Men Taking Prostate-Shrinking Drug

The PSA screening test for prostate cancer is not perfect. It can indicate cancer when none is present and miss life-threatening tumors. But a new study suggests the test is more reliable in men taking dutasteride (Avodart®), a drug widely prescribed to shrink an enlarged prostate gland.

Dutasteride lowers PSA levels by about half within six months. But the researchers found that even a slight rise in PSA levels among men taking the drug was a stronger indicator of prostate cancer, particularly aggressive tumors that require early diagnosis and treatment, than rising PSA levels in men who took a placebo.

“Dutasteride stabilizes the amount of PSA that comes from enlarged prostates and low-grade cancers,” says lead author Gerald Andriole, MD, the Robert Killian Royce, MD, Distinguished Professor and chief of urologic surgery at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. “This enhances a rising PSA’s ability to detect high-grade cancers that require early diagnosis and treatment, while reducing the discovery of tumors that are unlikely to cause harm if left untreated.”

The study is now available online and will be published in January in the Journal of Urology.

The PSA test measures the amount of prostate-specific antigen in the blood. The larger a man’s prostate, the more PSA he produces. Elevated levels can point to cancer. But PSA often rises naturally as men age, mainly due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a progressive enlargement of the prostate. This leads to many false positive PSA tests for cancer. Indeed, biopsies only find cancer in about one in four men with an elevated PSA.

In the new study, the researchers looked more closely at data from a four-year trial that evaluated whether dutasteride could reduce the risk of detecting prostate cancer in men with an increased risk of the disease. The study involved 8,231 men ages 50-75 who were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or a daily 0.5 mg dose of dutasteride. The men had elevated PSA levels (2.5 ng/ml-10 ng/ml) but no evidence of cancer on biopsies performed within six months of enrolling in the trial.

Results published earlier this year in the New England Journal of Medicine showed that dutasteride reduced the risk of a prostate cancer diagnosis by 23 percent. Dutasteride appears to keep tumors small or shrink them to the point that they are less likely to be detected by a biopsy, says Andriole, who led the steering committee that oversaw the earlier trial.

In the current analysis, the researchers looked at the performance of PSA as a marker for prostate cancer, particularly for aggressive cancer. Among men taking dutasteride, the investigators found that any subsequent rise in PSA levels over the course of the study was more likely to be linked to aggressive, high-grade tumors (Gleason score 7-10), compared to rising PSA levels in men on a placebo.

The Gleason scoring system measures tumor aggressiveness based on biopsy results and can range from 2-10, with 10 being the most aggressive.

“If a man is taking dutastride and his PSA level starts to rise, he has a higher chance of having an aggressive cancer,” Andriole says. “This makes PSA a more effective screening tool for prostate cancer but even more importantly for aggressive cancer.”

Over four years, PSA levels increased in 72 percent of men taking a placebo and only 29 percent of men taking dutasteride, the data show. However, there was no significant difference in high-grade tumors between the two groups.

Men taking dutasteride were almost twice as likely to have aggressive prostate cancer if their PSA levels rose, compared to men whose PSA levels went up while taking a placebo. In men with any increase in PSA, aggressive, high-grade tumors were diagnosed in 13.2 percent of those on dutasteride and 7.7 percent of those taking a placebo.

Even a slight rise in PSA levels was a more accurate predictor of aggressive tumors. Among men whose PSA levels increased one point or less, 10.3 percent of those taking dutasteride had aggressive cancer, compared with 5.4 percent taking a placebo.

That trend also held for larger increases in PSA levels. Among men whose PSA levels rose two points or more, nearly 20.9 percent of those taking dutasteride had aggressive cancer, compared with 9.8 percent taking a placebo.

In contrast, PSA levels tended to decrease or remain stable in men taking dutasteride who either had low-grade tumors or no cancer at all.

The study’s authors do not suggest that men take dutasteride just to get a more accurate readout of PSA levels attributable to cancer. “However, men who are taking dutasteride can be confident that the drug does not weaken the ability of PSA to find cancer if it develops,” Andriole says. “Rather, the drug enhances the ability to find cancer if PSA levels are rising.”

Source: Washington University in St. Louis

View drug information on dutasteride.

FDA Moves Forward On Implementation Of Tobacco Law

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced an action regarding the implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. The Agency has officially established the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee (TPSAC).

The Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee is tasked with providing advice, information, and recommendations to the Commissioner of Food and Drugs on health and other issues relating to tobacco products. The committee will be asked to consider a variety of topics including:

- identifying the effects of the alteration of the nicotine yields from tobacco products;
- reporting on the impact of the use of menthol in cigarettes on the public health; and
- advising on an application for modified risk (use of descriptors such as “light”) tobacco product.

The TPSAC will consist of 12 members, including the Chair to be selected by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, from among experts knowledgeable in the fields of medicine, medical ethics, science, or technology involving the manufacture, evaluation or use of tobacco products. There will be nine voting and three non-voting members. Of the nine voting members, seven will be health care professionals practicing in the area of oncology, pulmonology, cardiology, toxicology, pharmacology, addiction, or any other relevant specialty. One member will be an officer or employee of a state or local government or the federal government, and the final member will be a representative of the general public.

The three non-voting members will be identified with industry interests. These members will include one representative of the tobacco manufacturing industry, one representative of the tobacco growers, and one representative of the small business manufacturing industry.

Three related Federal Register documents are on display today and being published tomorrow; one announces the establishment of the new advisory committee, one requests nominations for voting members to serve on the committee, and one requests nominations for non-voting members.
For further information please access the following link and then scroll to Food and Drug Administration.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

HCA Registered Nurses Make A Demand To Management: Precautions, Not Punishment, On Flu

In response to a new policy imposed by the Hospital Corporation of America (HCA) mandating flu shots for all employees and requiring masks, the Registered Nurses of the California Nurses Association/National Nurses Organizing Committee (CNA/NNOC) have requested a meeting with hospital executives on behalf of the chain’s 50,000 RNs over this life-and-death issue.

HCA recently announced a policy, under threat of termination, mandating the use of surgical masks at all times by nurses who have not received a seasonal flu vaccine. Surgical masks have been proven ineffective in stopping both the H1N1 virus and the seasonal flu virus, meaning this policy amounts to punishment masquerading as precaution.

This new policy comes after nurses have criticized what they call “widespread” failures by HCA to secure the appropriate N95 masks that would reduce the transmission of the H1N1 virus, and also the lack of consistent guidelines across the chain for the isolation of infected patients. The tragic death last week of a young swine flu patient at an HCA facility in Port St. Lucie, Florida, who was not isolated, highlights the dangers of unilateral actions by hospital management on this issue without consultation of the nursing staff and the urgent need for genuine precautions.

Given this background, explains Dorothy Higgins, an ICU RN and chief nurse representative at HCA’s Regional Medical Center in San Jose, Calif., the newly announced flu policy amounts to “punishment not prevention, and a medically inappropriate response to the disease. Where are the stringent patient safety standards we need? Where is the focus on prevention?”

“HCA knows full well that the surgical masks they are attempting to force on nurses don’t protect anyone from the H1N1 virus, they just provide the illusion of protection, and that may be even more dangerous,” Higgins continued. “HCA won’t save the life of a single patient by going to war with its nurses. We are calling on HCA to work with CNA/NNOC to meet the highest standards set by the CDC to help us stop the transmission of this deadly virus.”

“As an HCA nurse, I want to keep my patients safe-and I think HCA should contribute to that, instead of just ‘masking’ the problem,” said Karen Clendenin, a RN at MountainView Hospital, an HCA facility in Las Vegas.

California Nurses Association

Bladder Urothelial Cells From Patients With Interstitial Cystitis Have Increased Sensitivity To Carbachol

UroToday – The presence of muscarinic receptors on bladder urothelial cells (BUC) suggests BUC may be a target for antimuscarinics. There are currently two recognized bladder hypersensory syndromes, overactive bladder and BPS/IC. Both syndromes overlap in symptomatology, urinary urgency (depending upon how urgency is defined), frequency, and nocturia. BPS/IC is strongly associated with pain and overactive bladder is not.

The urothelium and suburothelium actively participate in the sensory signaling of the bladder and express a range of receptors and release of neurotransmitters in response to distension and receptor activation. Muscarinic receptors are present on BUC and have been shown to mediate the release of adenosine triphosphate and nitric oxide, which in turn may activate afferent nerves or feedback on the BUC themselves.

Dr. Gopal Gupta and colleagues from Baltimore, Maryland designed a study to determine whether human BUC respond to muscarinic receptor activation and if so, whether this response is altered in BUC from patients with BPS/IC. Primary urothelial cell cultures were established from cystoscopic biopsies. Normal and BPS/IC urothelial cells were studied using calcium-imaging techniques as a means to monitor the response to muscarinic receptor activation with the agonist, carbachol. Changes in curves were measured in BPS/IC and normal bladder urothelial cells. Tolterodine was used to confirm the specificity of carbachol evoked increases in calcium ions.

The University of Maryland research team found that BPS/IC bladder urothelial cells, when compared to control BUC, were more sensitive to carbachol in increasing calcium ions. This was due to muscarinic rather than nicotinic activation as tolterodine, a non-specific muscarinic blocker without nicotinic effects, totally blocked carbachol’s ability to increase calcium. The authors conclude that the greater sensitivity of BPS/IC BUC to carbachol suggests that BPS/IC pathophysiology may include alterations in urothelial cellular muscarinic signaling.

Gupta GN, Lu SG, Gold MS, Chai TC
Neurourol Urodyn. 2009 Mar 12. Epub ahead of print.

UroToday Contributing Editor Philip M. Hanno, MD, MPH

UroToday – the only urology website with original content global urology key opinion leaders actively engaged in clinical practice.

To access the latest urology news releases from UroToday, go to:

Copyright © 2009 – UroToday

Cells Derived From Human Embryonic Stem Cells Reverse Retinal Degeneration

A new study reports that transplanted pigment-containing visual cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) successfully preserved structure and function of the specialized light-sensitive lining of the eye (known as the retina) in an animal model of retinal degeneration. The findings, published by Cell Press in the October 2nd issue of the journal Cell Stem Cell, represent an exciting step towards the future use of cell replacement therapies to treat devastating degenerative eye diseases that cause millions of people worldwide to lose their sight.

The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a layer of pigmented cells sandwiched between the visual retinal cells, called photoreceptors, and the nourishing blood vessels at the back of the eye. The RPE provides essential support to the retinal photoreceptors and is critical for normal vision. Deterioration of the RPE plays a central role in the progression of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and sub-types of retinitis pigmentosa. These conditions are associated with a progressive loss of vision that often leads to blindness.

“Although there are a variety of therapeutic approaches under development to delay the degenerative process, the grim reality is that many patients eventually lose their sight,” explains Dr. Benjamin Reubinoff, a senior author of the study. “Cell therapy to replenish the degenerating RPE cells may potentially halt disease progression.” Dr. Reubinoff and Dr. Eyal Banin who led the study, with their colleagues from Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center in Jerusalem, developed conditions to guide hESCs to differentiate into functional RPE-like cells in the laboratory.

The researchers found that nicotinamide (vitamin B3, NIC) and Activin A, an important growth factor, promoted differentiation of hESCs towards an RPE fate. The hESC-derived RPE-like cells, which could be identified by their characteristic black pigment, exhibited multiple biological properties and genetic markers that define authentic RPE cells. Further, the cells successfully delayed deterioration of retinal structure and function when they were transplanted into an animal model of retinal degeneration caused by RPE dysfunction.

Taken together, the results demonstrate that NIC and Activin A promoted the differentiation of hESCs towards an RPE fate. The hESC-derived cells exhibited the defining characteristics associated with RPE and successfully rescued the retina when transplanted into an animal model of retinal degeneration. “Our findings are an important step towards the potential future use of hESCs to replenish RPE in blinding diseases,” concludes Dr. Banin.

The reseacher is Maria Idelson, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; Ruslana Alper, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; Alexey Obolensky, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; Etti Ben-Shushan, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; Itzhak Hemo, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; Nurit Yachimovich-Cohen, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; Hanita Khaner, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; Yoav Smith, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; Ofer Wiser, CellCure Neurosciences Ltd., Jerusalem, Israel; Michal Gropp, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; Malkiel A. Cohen, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; Sharona Even-Ram, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; Yael Berman-Zaken, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; Limor Matzrafi, CellCure Neurosciences Ltd., Jerusalem, Israel; Gideon Rechavi, Pediatric Hemato-Oncology Department and Institute of Hematology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Aviv, Israel; Eyal Banin, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; and Benjamin Reubinoff, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Cathleen Genova

Cell Press

‘Off-Pump’ CABG Surgery Appears To Have No Benefit On Cognitive Or Cardiac Outcomes At 5 Years

Even though coronary artery bypass graft surgery with use of cardiopulmonary bypass (on-pump CABG) is associated with cognitive decline, avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass (off-pump CABG) had no effect on cognitive or cardiac outcomes at five years in low-risk patients, according to a study in JAMA.

The incidence of cognitive decline in the first year after CABG surgery ranges from less than 5 percent to more than 30 percent. The desire to avoid the perceived ill effects of cardiopulmonary bypass has led to a renewed interest in bypass surgery on the beating heart (off-pump CABG surgery), in part prompted by the development of cardiac stabilizers, according to background information in the article. The off-pump procedure, however, is technically more demanding, and it is unknown whether off-pump surgery can match the long-term cardiac benefits of on-pump surgery or improve cognitive outcomes.

Diederik van Dijk, M.D., Ph.D., of the University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands and colleagues assessed the 5-year cognitive and cardiac outcomes of 281 patients who were randomized to off-pump (n = 142) or on-pump (n = 139) CABG surgery. After 5 years, 130 patients were alive in each group.

Cognitive outcomes could be determined in 123 and 117 patients in the off-pump and on-pump groups, respectively. When applying the standard definition of cognitive decline (20 percent decline in 20 percent of the main test variables), 62 (50.4 percent) of 123 patients in the off-pump group and 59 (50.4 percent) of 117 patients in the on-pump group had cognitive decline. Using the alternative, more conservative definition of cognitive decline, 41 patients in the off-pump group (33.3 percent) and 41 patients in the on-pump group (35.0 percent) had cognitive decline.

Thirty patients assigned to undergo off-pump surgery (21.1 percent) and 25 patients assigned to undergo on-pump surgery (18.0 percent) had experienced a cardiovascular event. There were no differences between the 2 groups in the overall measure of quality of life or in angina status.

“We conclude that in low-risk patients undergoing CABG surgery, avoiding the use of cardiopulmonary bypass had no effect on cognitive or cardiac outcome 5 years after the procedure,” the authors write.

“The present results suggest that factors other than cardiopulmonary bypass may be responsible for cognitive decline, such as anesthesia and the generalized inflammatory response that is associated with major surgical procedures. It is also possible that the cognitive decline observed at 5-year follow-up is not caused by the operation but reflects natural aging.”


(JAMA. 2007;297:701-708.)

This study was supported by a grant from the International Anesthesia Research Society (IARS). Please see the article for additional information, including other authors, author contributions and affiliations, financial disclosures, funding and support, etc.

Contact: Diederik van Dijk

JAMA and Archives Journals

Association Between Marijuana Use And The Incidence Of Transitional Cell Carcinoma Suggested

UroToday – Like tobacco smoking, marijuana smoking has been implicated as a causative factor in tumors of the head and neck and of the lung. The marijuana smokers in whom these tumors occur are usually much younger than the tobacco smokers who are the usual victims of these malignancies. A question remains as to whether transitional cell carcinoma (TCCA), highly linked to tobacco use, can also be linked to marijuana use and if the cancers seen in marijuana smokers are similar to those seen in tobacco users.

A recent paper by J. A. Chacko and colleagues from the Medical College of Georgia and Stanford University examines the relationship between marijuana use and TCCA. The manuscript is published in the January 2006 issue of Urology.

Fifty-two men aged less than 60 years presenting consecutively with transitional cell carcinoma and 104 age-matched controls completed questionnaires about exposure to various potential carcinogens including radiation, Agent Orange, smoked or processed meats, dyes, tobacco, and marijuana. The patients all presented to one of two VA hospitals, the Augusta, Georgia VA and the Palo Alto, California VA.

Analysis of the results showed that there was no difference in the exposure histories between the two VA hospitals. Of the 52 patients with TCCA, 46 (88.5%) reported a history of habitual marijuana usage, and 72 (69.2%) of the 104 age-matched controls gave a history of habitual marijuana use. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.008). The cancer patients also demonstrated a significantly higher quantity of marijuana use in joint-years (P = 0.022), with a mean of 48 joint-years, compared to 28.5 joint-years for the control group. Both the cancer patients and the control group had tobacco use rates in excess of 90%. In this small number of patients, no relationship could be identified between marijuana use and/or tobacco use or quantity and tumor grade, stage, and recurrence rates.

Although this study suggests and causal relationship between marijuana exposure and bladder cancer, larger-scale epidemiologic and basic science studies are needed to confirm the role of marijuana smoking as an etiologic agent in the development of transitional cell carcinoma.

By Michael J. Metro, MD

Urology. 2006 Jan; 67(1):100-04
Link Here.
Chacko JA, Heiner JG, Siu W, Macy M, Terris MK

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Copyright © 2006 – UroToday